Sejarah Broadcast


Dengan berkembangnya pertelevisian Indonesia sejak tahun 1990 an, dan seturut berkembangnya media informasi khususnya televisi membuat dunia semakin hari semakin ramai dengan beragamnya acara dan informasi yang langsung dapat dinikmati melalui media electronic televisi. Meskipun arus informasi yang mengalir mempunyai dampak positif dan negatif namun hal tersebut tidak bisa dielakan karena perubahan jaman yang sangat dinamis. Keberadaan perkembangan arus informasi, sebenarnya berjalan secara alamiah sesuai perkembangan peradaban manusia itu sendiri. Berdasarkan Teori Alfin Tofler dalam bukunya yang berjudul The Third Wave, dijabarkan mengenai siklus peradaban manusia dalam tiga (3) kategori utama, yaitu : 1). Peradaban Pertama : ditandai dengan penemuan-penemuan dibidang pertanian. 2). Peradaban Kedua : ditandai dengan revolusi industri. 3). Peradaban Ketiga : dikembangkannya revolusi ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Dari ketiga peradaban tersebut, peradaban ketiga yang saat ini menjadi sorotan seluruh dunia maupun bangsa Indonesia untuk tetap berperan aktif dan terlibat dalam perkembangan pertelevisian serta dapat bersaing dengan negara-negara lain.

Sejalan dengan berkembangnya teknologi informasi khususnya televisi broadcast, hadirnya undang-undang No. 32 tahun 2002 tentang penyiaran, dimana undang-undang tersebut memberikan peluang dan kesempatan bagi berdirinya stasiun televisi broadcast yang baru. Dalam Undang-Undang penyiaran ini, seperti pada pasal 31 bagian kesembilan tentang Stasiun Penyiaran dan Wilayah Jangkauan Siaran terdapat ayat-ayat yang berbunyi : 1). Lembaga Penyiaran yang menyelenggarakan jasa penyiaran radio atau jasa penyiaran televisi terdiri atas penyiaran jaringan dan/atau stasiun penyiaran lokal. 2). Lembaga Penyiaran Publik dapat menyelenggarakan siaran dengan sistem stasiun jaringan yang menjangkau seluruh wilayah negara Republik Indonesia. 3). Lembaga Penyiaran Swasta dapat menyelenggarakan siaran melalui sistem jaringan dengan jangkauan terbatas. 4). Ketentuan lebih lanjut mengenai pelaksanaan sistem stasiun jaringan disusun oleh KPI bersama Pemerintah. 5). Stasiun penyiaran lokal dapat didirikan di lokasi tertentu dalam wilayah negara Republik Indonesia dengan wilayah jangkauan siaran terbatas pada lokasi tersebut. 6). Mayoritas pemilikan modal awal dan pengelolaan stasiun penyiaran lokal diutamakan kepada masyarakat di daerah tempat stasiun lokal itu berada.

Munculnya Undang-Undang penyiaran ini, sekalipun dikatakan telat setelah beberapa stasiun televisi melakukan siarannya, namun perlu diapresiasi secara positif bahwa telah menjadi sebuah regulator bagi pelaksanaan sistem penyiaran stasiun televisi di Indonesia. Hal ini terlihat bahwa sebelum Undang-Undang ini lahir pada tahun 2002, pengoperasian stasiun televisi sejak tahun 1990 seperti Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) hanya dikenal dengan tontonan siaran hiburan dan berita TVRI (dan bukan Penyiaran Publik sesuai PP No. 11 dan No. 13 tahun 2005). Setelah itu sekitar tahun 1994 dunia pertelevisian Indonesia diramaikan dengan hadirnya lima (5) stasiun televisi, antara lain : Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia (RCTI), Surya Citra Televisi (SCTV), Televisi Pendidikan/Keluarga Indonesia (TPI), Andalan Televisi (ANTEVE), dan Indosiar Visual Mandiri (INDOSIAR), yang kesemuanya telah mengudara (on air) secara Nasional. Kelima stasiun inilah yang kemudian sesuai dengan lahirnya UU No.32 tahun 2002 dikenal dengan nama Lembaga Penyiaran Swasta (bagian kelima pasal 16 ayat 1).

Dengan semakin berkembangnya teknologi pertelevisian di Indonesia, maka lima (5) tahun kemudiantepatnya tahun 1999 melalui Departemen Perhubungan (d/h Departemen Penerangan) dengan Surat Keputusan (SK) Menteri Penerangan No. 286/SK/Menpen/1999 telah memberikan izin kepada lima (5) perusahaan stasiun Televisi Swasta baru, yaitu : PT. Televisi Transformasi (Trans TV), TV7 ( yang kemudian merger/bergabung dengan Trans TV dan dinamakan Trans7 hingga kini), PT. Global Informasi Bermutu (Global TV), Lativi, dan Mtero TV. Dengan berkembangnya broadcast pertelevisian yang begitu pesat sampai dengan saat ini, terlihat stasiun-stasiun telavisi baik skala Nasional maupun Lokal daerah mengambil peran dan turut meramaikan perkembangan teknologi pertelevisian Indonesia.


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