Sutradara & TV Program Director

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Sutradara dan TV Program Director

“Action…… and Cut“  kata-kata itu sering terdengar saat sedang shooting, baik film ataupun sinetron. Kata tersebut tidak bisa diucapkan oleh sembarang crew, yang bisa dan berhak menggunakan kata itu hanya seorang sutradara.

 

“Film kolosal yang pernah sukses di belantika perfilman dunia adalah film Titanic yang di Sutradarai oleh James Cameron”.  Sutradara adalah the man behind the scene, yang bertanggung jawab dalam seluruh proses pelaksanaan produksi mulai dari pra produksi, produksi, hingga pasca produksi. Dia tidak hanya bertanggung jawab, tapi juga harus menguasai isi film tersebut secara tulisan yang kemudian dituangkan secara audio visual untuk menjadikan sebuah kesatuan sebuah film yang utuh.

 

Istilah sutradara  hampir semua orang pernah mendengarnya, namun secara teoritis belum tentu memahami apa “sutradara” itu sesungguhnya.

 

Diatas penulis telah menyinggung-nyinggung mengenai sutradara televisi, yang dimaksud sutradara televisi adalah pengarah acara, bahasa universalnya dalam dunia Broadcast adalah Programme Director (PD). Beda halnya dengan sutradara, pengarah acara di sebuah stasiun televisi tidak berhak menentukan crew-nya. Para tenaga professional di stasiun televisi seperti cameraman, lightingman, audioman, set dan property telah diatur oleh masing-masing koordinatornya untuk melaksanakan sebuah program acara televisi. Para professional ini bekerja di rolling atau diputar dari satu program ke program lainnya, yang memang memproduksi acara in house stasiun televisi.

 

Pengarah acara adalah seorang yang berpengalaman dan merupakan spesialis dalam tugasnya dan selalu mempertanggung jawabkan hasil karyanya dari segi artistik maupun dari segi produksinya kepada seorang produser. Di dalam stasiun siaran yang kecil, biasanya tugas seorang produser dirangkap oleh pengarah acara. Hal ini ditempuh semata-mata hanya masalah efisiensi saja. Pengarah acara dalam melaksanakan tugasnya bertindak sebagai pimpinan dan penuntun dari seluruh kerabat kerjanya, karena itu harus selalu bertindak secara konseptual.

 

Pengarah acara televisi adalah sebutan bagi seseorang yang mempunyai profesi mengontrol program acara televisi baik bentuk drama maupun non drama, dalam produksi single atau multi kamera. Seorang pengarah acara harus dapat berperan sebagai seorang sutradara.

 

Seperti diutarakan oleh Alan Wurtzel dan Steve R. Acker dalam bukunya Television Production :

 

“The production team member responsible for creating the sound and picture of a program

(anggota tim produksi yang bertanggung jawab terhadap pembuatan suara dan gambar dari sebuah program).”

 

Pendapat Wurtzel dan Acker tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengarah acara televisi juga bertanggung jawab terhadap hasil akhir program acara televisi baik secara audio maupun visual dan definisi di atas dapat memberikan penjelasan tentang peran dan tanggung jawab seorang pengarah acara  walaupun belum seluruhnya menjabarkan tentang fungsi dan tugas seorang sutradara televisi.

 

Sementara itu, Herbert Zettl (1980) seorang pakar dan pengamat televisi dari San Fransisco State University mencoba mendefinisikan terminology sutradara televisi yang disebut sebagai director sebagai berikut :

 

“(a person) in charge of directing talent and technical operations. Is ultimately responsible for transforming  a script into effective video and audio message. At small stations may often be the producer as well.“

pd

(gambar; Program director. Keputusan terbaik saat itu, untuk Audio-Visual tetap ditangan Director)

 

Maksud Zettl adalah seseorang yang bertugas memberikan pengarahan kepada talen pemain atau pengisi acara dan pada masalah teknis operasional. Pengarah acara secara langsung bertanggung jawab memindahkan secara efektif yang tertulis di dalam naskah dalam bentuk pesan-pesan audio visual. Dalam skala stasiun TV,  yang lebih kecil sering kali juga bertindak sebagai produser.

 

Peranan seorang Television Director tidak lepas dari aspek-aspek format acara televisi,  yaitu drama, non drama, news dan sport sehingga sebuah definisi dari television director (atau program director) juga harus meliputi dan membahas ketiga aspek tersebut. Dalam penyutradaraan perlu dikaji hubungan antara kebutuhan artistic dan kebutuhan teknis dimana dalam industri televisi kita mengenal system rekaman gambar visual dengan menggunakan single camera dan multi camera. Demikian pula untuk kebutuhan teknis lainnya seperti penataan cahaya, penataan audio, penataan rekaman gambar dan kebutuhan kekuatan sumber tenaga listrik.

 

Singkatnya, sutradara televisi adalah seseorang yang menyutradarai program acara televisi yang terlibat dalam proses kreatif dari pra hingga paska produksi, baik untuk drama maupun nondrama dengan lokasi di studio (in-door) maupun di alam terbuka (out door) yang umumnya  menggunakan sistem produksi single kamera atau lebih (bukan sytem multi Camera).

 

Sedangkan Pengarah Acara adalah orang yang bertugas menginterprestasikan, mengeksekusi naskah/ide/rundown seorang produser, menjadi suatu bentuk acara utuh. Disebut  program acara TV .pada umumnya multi Camera Sistem. bertanggung penuh dalam kwalitas gambar dan suara yang utuh. Sedangkan kontent atau isi tanggung jawab penuh producer.

r. nugroho (om Boobs)

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